Beyond Heaven and Hell: A Brief Analysis of Meister Eckhart’s 87th Sermon

By Jin-yeong Yi

Drop of water in water

“By meditating on our birth, we can also see that there appears to be a definite time at which our existence began. Before our birth this ‘I’ did not exist. But we realize that cannot be. There can never be a stage in which we did not exist, and this ‘I’ is only a temporary reflection of our infinite existence.
Similarly, by meditating on our death, we can see that it is impossible that there will come a time when when we do not exist. It is only this individual consciousness that will cease to exist, our true ‘I,’ the subject of our consciousness, must always continue to exist.”

—P. J. Mazumdar, The Circle of Fire

“It is child’s talk that a man dies and goes to heaven. We never come nor go. We are where we are. All the souls that have been, are, and will be, are on one geometrical point.”

—Swami Vivekananda

If you’re an atheist, you probably don’t believe in life after death. Medieval Christian theologian Meister Eckhart may convince you otherwise. Here is an excerpt from his 87th sermon:

“Now pay earnest attention to this! I have often said, and eminent authorities say it too, that a man should be so free of all things and all works, both inward and outward, that he may be a proper abode for God where God can work. Now we shall say something else. If it is the case that a man is free of all creatures, of God and of self, and if it is still the case that God finds a place in him to work, then we declare that as long as this is in that man, he is not poor with the strictest poverty…  So we say that a man should be so poor that he neither is nor has any place for God to work in. To preserve a place is to preserve distinction. Therefore I pray to God to make me free of God, for my essential being is above God, taking God as the origin of creatures. For in that essence of God in which God is above being and distinction, there I was myself and knew myself so as to make this man. Therefore I am my own cause according to my essence, which is eternal, and not according to my becoming, which is temporal. Therefore I am unborn, and according to my unborn mode I can never die. According to my unborn mode I have eternally been, am now and shall eternally remain. That which I am by virtue of birth must die and perish, for it is mortal, and so must perish with time. In my birth all things were born, and I was the cause of myself and all things: and if I had so willed it, I would not have been, and all things would not have been. If I were not, God would not be either. I am the cause of God’s being God: if I were not, then God would not be God. But you do not need to know this.

A great master says that his breaking-through is nobler than his emanation, and this is true. When I flowed forth from God, all creatures declared: ‘There is a God’; but this cannot make me blessed, for with this I acknowledge myself as a creature. But in my breaking-through, where I stand free of my own will, of God’s will, of all His works, and of God himself, then I am above all creatures and am neither God nor creature, but I am that which I was and shall remain for evermore. There I shall receive an imprint that will raise me above all the angels. By this imprint I shall gain such wealth that I shall not be content with God inasmuch as he is God, or with all His divine works: for this breaking-through guarantees to me that I and God are one. Then I am what I was, then I neither wax nor wane, for then I am an unmoved cause that moves all things. Here, God finds no place in man, for man by his poverty wins for himself what he has eternally been and shall eternally remain. Here, God is one with the spirit, and that is the strictest poverty one can find.

If anyone cannot understand this sermon, he need not worry. For so long as a man is not equal to this truth, he cannot understand my words, for this is a naked truth which has come direct from the heart of God.”

This text is intrinsically about nothing. I don’t know what Eckhart, who was a highly controversial figure during his time, really intended for it to mean. The following is what it means to me personally:

So we say that a man should be so poor that he neither is nor has any place for God to work in. To preserve a place is to preserve distinction.”

“God” = the universe as a whole. In the same way that a solar prominence is not separate from the Sun, we are fundamentally not distinct from God: we are God; we only need to realize this fact.

“Therefore, I pray to God to make me free of God, for my essential being is above God, taking God as the origin of creatures.”

Notice that Eckhart uses the word “origin” rather than “creator” in referring to God.

“Therefore I am my own cause according to my essence, which is eternal, and not according to my becoming, which is temporal.”

“Essence” = energy. Energy is eternal because, according to the first law of thermodynamics, it cannot be created nor destroyed. “Becoming” = a particular, dynamic configuration of matter, which arises out of energy.

“Therefore I am unborn, and according to my unborn mode I can never die.”

If the universe is eternal, and we are an inextricable part of the universe, then we are eternal.

“That which I am by virtue of birth must die and perish, for it is mortal, and so must perish with time.”

“That which I am by virtue of birth” = a particular, transient collocation of matter.

“When I flowed forth from God, all creatures declared: “There is a God”; but this cannot make me blessed, for with this I acknowledge myself as a creature.”

Once again, notice Eckhart’s unusual wording. He does not say “When I was created by God,” let alone “created by God ex nihilo.”

“But in my breaking-through, where I stand free of my own will, of God’s will, of all His works, and of God himself, then I am above all creatures and am neither God nor creature, but I am that which I was and shall remain for evermore.”

To recognize that the constituent parts we are made of are eternal is to recognize that we have always existed and always will.

“Here, God is one with the spirit, and that is the strictest poverty one can find.”

“Strictest poverty” = absolute purity without any accoutrements, the essence without the externals. In other words, complete identification with what is eternal: the universe, sans personification.

If this is how the real afterlife looks like, well, I suppose one could do a lot worse…

“Oh, if only you knew yourselves! You are souls; you are Gods. If ever I feel like blaspheming, it; is when I call you man.”

—Swami Vivekananda

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Discovering the God Within

By Jin-yeong Yi

“Indeed it is very difficult, if not impossible to prevent man from making himself the sole model of his divinity. Montaigne says ‘man is not able to be other than he is, nor imagine but after his capacity; let him take what pains he may, he will never have a knowledge of any soul but his own.’ Xenophanes said, ‘if the ox or the elephant understood either sculpture or painting, they would not fail to represent the divinity under their own peculiar figure that in this, they would have as much reason as Polyclitus or Phidias, who gave him the human form.’ It was said to a very celebrated man that ‘God made man after his own image;’ ‘man has returned the compliment,’ replied the philosopher. Indeed, man generally sees in his God, nothing but a man. Let him subtilize as he will, let him extend his own powers as he may, let him swell his own perfections to the utmost, he will have done nothing more than make a gigantic, exaggerated man, whom he will render illusory by dint of heaping together incompatible qualities. He will never see in such a god, but a being of the human species, in whom he will strive to aggrandize the proportions, until he has formed a being totally inconceivable.”

—Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d’Holbach, The System of Nature

“I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine.”

—Bruce Lee

“I do not need to pretend that I am anyone other than myself. I do not need to feel insecure about my perceptions. The self-cultivation that I undertake is to perfect who I am, not to become someone other than who I am.”

—Deng Ming-Dao, 365 Tao

Surely most of us can name at least one individual, living or dead, real or fictional, who we view as a role model. The gods and saints in various religious traditions specifically serve this function. The problem is that, as a unique collection of opinions, experiences, abilities, tendencies, preferences, standards, etc., we can only go so far in emulating those we regard as role models. Chances are, you don’t have an ideal that is tailored specifically for the unique individual that is you.

Remember that scene in 2001: A Space Odyssey where the tribe of Australopithecus awaken one morning to find a massive black monolith outside of their cave? I don’t know how exactly a motionless, monochromatic mass of matter inspired these hominids to invent tools, thereby entering the next stage of evolution, but I surmise that the answer lies in this feature of the monolith: perfection. Unlike the crude rock formations of the African desert, the monolith was without flaw–it was perfect in both shape and composition. Perhaps the tremendous contrast between the two taught the hominids the difference between that which is undesigned and that which is designed. The monolith taught them what it meant to have a goal to pursue, an ideal to work toward. It taught them the meaning of inspiration and ambition, and the possibilities that emerge therefrom.

Don’t have a God to revere and look to as a perennial source of inspiration? Then consider creating one. What to use as your template? Yourself. Take the person that is you and idealize him or her. Make this idealized you worthy of the Greek pantheon. Think about everything you regard as your shortcomings and flaws, about everything that you would change if you could. Subtract them, then add all the attributes and abilities that you wish you had, while maximizing the ones you already have. Don’t hold back. Godlike intelligence, creativity, strength, beauty, you name it. But make sure that the Being who emerges from your imagination is essentially recognizable as yourself. It should still be you–only an incomparably superior version of you, the highest you. You as a God or a Goddess.

By doing this, you’ve given yourself a specific, concrete ideal to be inspired by, an ultimate standard to strive toward–to evolve toward–each day of your life. You now have your own Monolith.

Giving the Devil His Due (or, The Case for Satan)

By Jin-yeong Yi

Inverted pentagram (white)

“There are no lines in nature, only areas of color, one against another.”

—Edouard Manet

“Rebellion is the salt of the earth.”

—Joseph McCabe

“If God and the Devil were playing football, Manon would be the stadium that they played in, he would be the sun that shined down on them.”

—Nancy Downs, The Craft

Without Contraries is no progression.
Attraction and Repulsion, Reason and Energy,
Love and Hate, are necessary to Human existence.
From these contraries spring what the religious call Good & Evil.
Good is the passive that obeys Reason.
Evil is the active springing from Energy.
Good is Heaven.
Evil is Hell.

—William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell

“I am the Lord, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:

That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the Lord, and there is none else.

I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things.”

—The Bible, Isaiah 45:5-7 (King James Version)

Where would Star Wars be without Darth Vader? The Lord of the Rings without Sauron? The Matrix without Agent Smith? Where would the traditional Christian narrative be without Satan?

Now, I don’t believe that Father Satan actually exists, but I do tend to take Him seriously as a symbol. Where would God be without an antithesis, without something to provide juxtaposition and conflict? For me, Satan is a reminder that we can’t have light without darkness, purity without corruption, pleasure without pain, sweetness without bitterness, elation without disappointment, joy without sorrow, kindness without cruelty, love without hatred, nobleness without baseness, beauty without ugliness, life without death. Even as I try to avoid the hideous and horrible side of life, I can’t help but think that without it, or the knowledge of it, or at least the ability to imagine it, life would be lifeless.

Of course, Satan and His relationship with God can be perceived in different ways, in the same way that in Hinduism the various aspects of Brahman can be expressed in a plethora of different theologies. There are at least two ways of looking at the relationship: the orthodox perspective, according to which Satan is an independently operating antagonist of God (though not equal to God); and an unorthodox monistic perspective, according to which Satan and God are equal aspects of a single, unified Godhead.

Either way, by contradicting God, Satan complements God, intentionally or not. Satan conspires with God in painting upon the canvas of space-time the picture of all existence. Without Satan, Life would not be Life. For this reason, the more daring among Christian religious naturalists might consider dedicating a small altar to the Prince of Darkness in their churches, if only as a concrete reminder of the indispensable role He plays in the grand design and drama of the cosmos.